The book of Isaiah naturally divides itself into two main sections. The main theme of the first section (1-39) is God’s chastening of Judah for their sins, and it looks toward the coming captivity. The main theme of the second section (40-66) is God’s consolation of the captives after their suffering, and it looks beyond the captivity.
I. Condemnation (1-39)
A. Preaching against Judah and Israel (1-12)
B. Judgment of the nations and the day of the LORD (13-23)
C. Songs of future glory for the nation (24-27)
D. Woes against the sins of the people (28-35)
E. Historical parenthesis concerning King Hezekiah (36-39)
Il. Consolation (40-66)
A. Deliverance promised (40-48)
B. Suffering and glory of the Servant (49-57)
C. Coming Age of Glory (58-66)
No Old Testament book gives such a full picture of Jesus Christ as does Isaiah who gives much prophecy about “the sufferings of Christ, and the glory that should follow” (1 Pet 1:10-11). Both advents of Christ are presented without any mention of this present age in-between (e.g. Is 61:1-3). The Lord’s disciples didn’t understand that there would be two advents until after the resurrection of Christ (Lk 24:25-27, 44-47).
There are 17 references in Isaiah to the suffering servant – 13 have the nation of Israel in view and the Lord in type (Is 41:8-9; 43:10; 44:1-2, 21, 26; 45:4; 48:20; 49:3-7) and 4 refer only to Christ (Is 42:1, 19; 52:13; 53:11). Israel was the servant of God that was disobedient and had to be chastened. Christ is the true and perfect servant who was wounded for the transgressions of others.